Grain of the Wood
Wood-cell fibre orientation is the also known as wood grain direction. All grains can be a curse or blessing, excluding straight grain. Any grain wood that isn’t straight grain might sometimes sawn and produce beautiful pattern which then becomes a blessing. Grain will lose its strength in structural applications like home construction, if it is anything other than straight grain because they are made of softwood.
During machining, boards that are non-straight grain will require more care to avoid negative reactions or tear outs. Most importantly, in regards to the physical characteristic of wood in woodworking, is the slope or grain direction. Cross grain and straight grain are the two basic grain categories. The grain that runs to the longitudinal axis of the piece are called straight grains. Grain wood that deviates from the longitudinal axis it’s called cross grain and can deviate in two ways: either diagonal or spiral grain. The slope of the grain refers to the amount of deviation. There are various types of woodworking direction techniques for wood pieces:
- •against the grain: having tear-outs and chipping, giving in poor effects.
•with the grain: to have clean, smooth effects.
•end grain: to have right angles at the plank end.
•cross grain: aligned plane that is cut across the line of the grain.
Wood Designing Projects
When designing wood structures or wood pieces, grain alignment must be taken into consideration. An example, instead of across the grain, tension should along the grain which can keep a span from failing. Warping in wood affected by grain direction. Distinction can be made when aligning wood in a tree. There are multiple types and descriptions of wood grain in different tree species.
- •interlocking grain: a spiralling grain that spirals around a tree’s axis, which causes alternate directions within the spiral grain after reversing its direction for several years.
•straight grain: easy to work with grain, that is parallel to a tree’s axis, and runs in a single direction.
•spiralling grain: spiralling grain which spirals around a tree’s axis.
•irregular grain: twisting or swirling grain which can have various patterns and is caused by burls, knots, or crotch wood, which are branches that are separated from a tree’s trunk.
•wavy grain: grain that grows up a tree trunk in a wavy style.
- Wood grain that has alternating lighter and darker wood that during different seasons has different growth parameters on split or cut wood and is known as aesthetic. Stress, knots, special grain alignments, fungus, burls, as well as other factors are some causes. Unique rarities can embed themselves in the wood and promote finished work and raw material and include curly, quilted, fiddleback, and bird’s eye.
Physical sawn properties affect appearance of the wood.
- •end: wood grain cut across its growth rings.
•flat: through and through, plain, slab, bastard, or flat sawn.
•edge: straight grain or rift or quarter sawn.
- Grain has different patterns. Irregular grains exist, such as in burl and burr wood, formed because of multiple knots.
Wood Grain Filling
A woodworking product that can fill grain wood pores resulting in a smooth finish is wood filler grain. Mahogany, walnut, and oak are types of filling wood that are useless and ineffective to build multiple layers of. Three components that make up wood filler grain are solvent, a binder, and a bulking agent. The binder is a mixture of varnish and oil if oil-based or wood. Use Urethane or acrylic in water-based wood filler. The solvent influences the binder.
Use water in water-based fillers and mineral spirits in oil-based fillers. Shrinking and swelling from humidity and temperature can cause changes. Therefore, use silica as a bulking agent. Besides use silica, talc, quartz powder, and wood flour as binders. On open grain woods, woodworkers use grain filler to create a mirror-like full finish. Wood such as cherry and maple only require a few coats for a mirror-like finish while mahogany, ash, walnut, and oak require several coats.
To eliminate imperfections, polish the surface and sand before applying filler. Without grain filler, imperfections would be obvious. The filling must be both against and with the grain of the wood, and any excess should be scraped away. Burlap removes any extra wood filler after partially drying.
Decor Grates WL614W-N 6-Inch by 14-Inch Wood Wall Register, Natural Oak
Made with high-quality and fine materials. Louvered Wall Wood Registers made to enhance room decor with their classic design. They are easy installation and are easy well air control with a damper box that is rust proof.
•For easy installation a natural look, including brass screws.
•Damper boxes I made with high-impact plastic rather than metal damper boxes that tend to seize up and rust.
•Several finishes and styles are available.
MAYFAIR Solid Bamboo Toilet Seat with Brushed Nickel Hinges, ROUNDThis Mayfair Veneer Natural Reflections wood toilet seat brings style to any bathroom without issues of cracking and splitting and has long lasting and beautiful chrome metal non-tarnish hinges.Key Features•Fits all US and Canadian round manufacturer bowls.
•Secure accented brushed nickel hinges.
•Bath decor that is complemented by solid bamboo.
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General Tools MMD7NP Moisture Meter, Pinless, Digital LCD with Tricolor Bar Graph
This Non-Penetrating General LCD Tricolor Bar Graph Meter includes a 9v battery it is perfect for woodworkers, water damage remediates, contractors, building inspectors, and enthusiasts that are DIY.
•Scratching, pinholes, and scuffing in your projects and walls can be avoided because the meter is pinless.
•Moisture levels can be read for levels up to 3/4 in within the surface and measurement range from 0 to 35% for hardwood and 0 to 53% fir softwood. As well as comparative readings for masonry and wallboard.
•Easy screen that is simple to use with a tri-color LED bar graph, auto power off and hold button. Low battery and out of range alarms, auto calibrating, and diagonal to inch backlit LCD screen.
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Bare Decor EZ-Floor Interlocking Flooring Tiles in Solid Teak Wood Oiled Finish (Set of 10), Long 9 Slat
This interlocking EZ-Floor flooring is made of solid teak wood on a plastic base with 9 solid pieces on each tile and are oil finished. The interlocking tiles snap together without the use of tools or glue in any outdoor indoor setting. Sand scratches out because they are solid hardwood. Rearrange or remove the tiles as desired.
•Can cover 10 square feet and includes a set of 10 pieces.
•Installs easily on uneven surfaces.
•Made of solid oil finished 100% Tectona Grandis Teak wood.
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Mammoth Easy Lock Sustainably Sourced Solid Acacia Wood Oiled Finish Interlocking Deck Tiles, Water Resistant Outdoor Patio Pavers or Composite Deck Flooring
This easy to install flooring is made of Acacia wood which is specifically created for outdoor use. The tile has an oil finish and is natural and sustain source as well as FSC-certified.
•Includes 11 checkered pattern pieces of deck wood tile that are 12″ x 12″ in and .75 in thick.
•Anti-slip wood grain and UV resistant coated deck tiles.
•Easy interlocking deck flooring that is portable and similar to composite deck boards which require no tools for assembly.
It is easy to forget that each original piece of wood was a part of a living object. Because wood in workshops is in the form of lumber. The qualities like weight, grain, hardness, lustre, and colour, aren’t as obvious. Because it would take understanding it at a cellular level to explain wood grain.
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Grain of the Wood – Review
The Grain of the wood is important to establish when manufacturing a product wether it is all or part wood construction. The MAYFAIR Solid Bamboo Toilet Seat is a good example as Bamboo is a very resilient wood used in Asian countries as scaffolding. The MMD7NP Moisture Meter tool is very useful for determining the water content that is important to know on many operations involving wood.